Forts and Batteries
In the early 19th century Praia had two forts, the Fort Our Lady of the Conception on the presidio and the Fort Our Lady of Grace south of the church of the same name. Outside the urban core were the Temerosa Fort, built in 1645 by the vicar of Praia, Gaspar Vogado and rebuilt around 1664 by governor-general António Galvão, who equipped it with four cannon; the Fort or Battery of Mulher Branca (White Woman), as indicated in a 1778 map by António Carlos Andrea, located at Mulher Branca Point; and the Temível Fort or Battery at Praia Negra, ordered built by Marcelino António Bastos, governor of Cape Verde from 1796 to 1802, at Achada Grande. All were eventually considered to be bad quality and virtually useless. The battery on the small island of Santa Maria and the Visconde Battery at Visconde Point were added later.